History of India pdf

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Pdf NameHistory of India pdf
No. of pages 29
Size2.6 MB
Language Hindi
Category History
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The Indian subcontinent covers a vast area of ​​South Asia. this subcontinent is home to one of the oldest civilizations in the world. In this article, every effort has been made to explain the history of India in depth.It appears that the Indian subcontinent has always provided an attractive and secure habitat for human occupation since early times. To the south, it is bounded by a wide stretch of sea and is well protected, which in ancient times isolated it culturally. If we look to the north, it is protected by the huge ranges of the Himalayas.

The vast range of the Himalayas also shelters it from the arctic winds and air currents of Central Asia. Only in the north-west and north-east is access by land easy, and it was through those two areas that most of the early contact with the outside world. The subcontinent is divided into two major divisions: in northern India, along the Indus, and Ganges (Ganges) rivers. This basin is called the Indo-Gangetic Plain and, in southern India, a block of rocks called the Darkian Rocks forms the Deccan Plateau region. The vast alluvial plain of the river valleys provided. India is located in South Asia.

India is named after the river Indus. ‘Bharat’ has been used as an epithet in the Indus Civilization, to designate a country. The name refers to the ancient emperor, Bharata, whose story is summarized in the Mahabharata, an Indian epic. 5th century BC . The religious texts written in India are called Puranas. According to these writings, known as the Puranas, Bharata was the historical figure who conquered the entire Indian subcontinent.

With this, he continued to rule the land in peace and harmony. For this reason, this land has been called Bharatavarsha (‘the subcontinent of India’). Hominid activity has been dated to over 250,000 years, which is in the Indian subcontinent. And therefore, the Indian subcontinent is one of the oldest inhabited regions.Archaeological exhumations have discovered fossils, that were used by early humans, including rock tools, indicating an extremely early date for human residency and technology in the region.

While the Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations have long been acknowledged for their widely-known donations to civilization, India has often been overlooked in the West, yet it is equally rich in history and culture. Indus Valley Civilization (c. 7000-c. 600 BC) There have been many great civilizations of the ancient world, one of which was the Indus Valley Civilization, the Indus Valley Civilization covered a wider area than Egypt. And this created a vibrant and progressive culture.

India is the birthplace of the four great religions of the world – Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism. India was referred to as Bharatavarsha. Also, the Charvaka philosophical school greatly influenced the development of scientific thought and inquiry. This is also the birthplace of the Charvaka philosophical school.

The early history of India:

The places that have provided archaeologists and scholars with the richest sites of ancient genealogy are the regions of present-day India, Pakistan, and Nepal. The species Homo heidelbergensis, the ancestor of Homo sapiens, migrated from Europe to the subcontinent of India, centuries before the migration of humans. Evidence of the existence of Homo heidelbergensis was first discovered in Germany (1907) and since then, further discoveries have accepted fairly clear migration patterns of this species out of Africa.

The antiquity of their presence in India has been recognized to a large extent because of their archaeological interest. Because unlike Mesopotamia and Egypt, excavations in India did not begin in full swing until the 1920s. Although the ancient city of Harappa was known to exist as early as 1829, it was not considered of archaeological importance and was ignored. When excavations were carried out later, emphasis was placed on locating sites mentioned in the great Indian epics Mahabharata and Ramayana.

To cite just one example, the 4000 BC Balathal village near Udaipur in Rajasthan shows the antiquity of India’s history, which was neither discovered until 1962 nor excavated until 1990 AD. The Neolithic site of Mehrgarh dating back to 7000 BC is older than Balathal, showing evidence of settlement not discovered earlier than Balathal until 1974

Mohenjo-Daro & Harappan Civilization:

The Indus Valley Civilization dates back to BC. 7000 BCE, a continuous increase is seen from the south and north to Malwa in the lower Ganga Valley region. It was observed that the cities built during this period were larger than the contemporary settlements of other countries, and were made of burnt clay bricks according to the cardinal points. While building the houses, it was kept in mind that the house should have a large courtyard opening from the front door, a kitchen for cooking and small bedrooms for sleeping.
Family activities are mainly focused on the patio, in front of the house.

The civilizations of Rome, Egypt, Greece and Mesopotamia have made this estimate after seeing everything. If seen in that way, the buildings and houses that were built in the Indus Valley were more
technologically advanced, flush toilets and wind catchers used for air conditioning were also seen in the buildings built in the Indus Valley. The sewer and drainage systems of the cities also appear to have been more advanced than those of Rome.

Mohenjo-Daro and the Great City of Harappa, these two are the most famous sites of this period located in present-day Pakistan, which was part of India until 1947. The most famous sites of this period are Mohenjo-Daro in Sindh province. and Harappa in Punjab both are famous Harappa owes its name to the Harappan Civilization (another name for the Indus Valley Civilization), which is another name for the Indus Valley Civilization. It is usually divided into three parts, the early, middle and mature periods.

The buildings of Harappa are completely damaged today. After the arrival of the British government, in the 19th century, the site was settled for the construction of the British Labor Railroad. Workers started carrying loads of soil and materials. However, before this, the local people had demolished some of the buildings there for their needs, so now only it can be said that Harappa was a historic Bronze Age with a population of 30,000 people.

Mohenjo-Daro, on the other hand, is much better preserved because it was freed from burial only after 1922. Mohenjo-daro means ‘of the dead’ and the local people apply this thing. Excavations here have yielded bones of humans and animals buried in the ground, as well as ancient ceramics and other artifacts, periodically unearthed from the soil.

Decline of Harappan Civilization:

The people of the Harappan civilization believed in gods. They used to worship the gods and engage in rituals. Statues of Indra, the god of storm and war etc. have been found at many places in the excavation of Harappa. Terracotta figurines depicting Shakti Maa (mother goddess), suggesting a popular, common worship of the feminine principle, are among the major sculptures found here. 2000 – In about 1500 BC, the caste known as Aryans came to India and got absorbed in the Harappan culture.

It is believed that the Aryans brought their gods and language, which is Sanskrit, with them, and adapted them to the beliefs of that region. Although this issue is always fresh that how did Arya come here? Who were those people? But it is believed that after the arrival of Aryans, the Harappan culture started going towards its downfall.

The Vedic Period:

In the Vedic period comes the period after the abandonment of the cities, that is, after the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization. The pastoral lifestyle can be seen to emerge in the Vedic period, along with this the Hindu religious texts Vedas have also been followed in the Vedic period. Society in the Vedic period was divided into four classes (varnas), also known as the ‘caste system’, with the highest being the Brahmins, then the Kshatriyas (warriors), and Vaishyas (farmers and merchants). Dalits, considered untouchables after Shudras, used to handle meat and waste.

Initially, it was believed that this caste system was only a reflection of the occupation of the people, but with time, it came to the fore that people now took this caste system more harshly. Now people were recognized based on their birth. People can neither do any other work nor change their religion according to their wishes. People became more cruel towards this caste system. People from different castes were also not allowed to marry.

The Great Empires of Ancient India:

After the death of Persia in 330 BC, Alexander invaded India. Foreign influence on the region gave rise to Greco-Buddhist culture, which exerted a strong influence on all areas of culture in northern India. There was also a lot of change in the way people wore clothes. Everything was depicted as Hellenic (Gandhara School of Art). After Alexander left, the Maurya Empire emerged, ruling almost all of northern India during the reign of Chandragupta Maurya (RC 321–297 BC) (322–185 BC).

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